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The Apostle Junia, Romans 16:7
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Admiral Kolchak
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The Apostle Junia, Romans 16:7

Were there women apostles in New Testament times? Though this may be a surprise to some, yes, there were. St. Paul mentions such a woman in the sixteenth chapter of his letter to the Romans. Often times Romans 16 is glossed over when reading the Bible, being treated like the cast and credits that appear at the end of a film that you glance at as you leave the cinema. So it is easy to overlook Romans 16:7 (New Revised Standard Version), which says: “Greet Andronicus and Junia, my relatives who were in prison with me; they are prominent among the apostles, and they were in Christ before I was.”

Was Junia an apostle? Jehovah’s Witnesses and some Fundamentalist groups say no! Fred Franz’s New World Translation, following a medieval tradition, renders Romans 16:7 as: “Greet Andronicus and Junias my relatives and my fellow captives, who are men of note among the apostles and who have been in union with Christ longer than I have.” Interestingly the Greek word that Fred Franz translates as “men of note,” is translated as “notable (ones)” in the Kingdom Interlinear Translation, thus not necessarily referring to two men, but to persons of note. So did St. Paul commend Junia, a woman, or Junias, a man?

Regarding Junias/Junia, the ANCHOR BIBLE DICTIONARY Volume 3, page 1127 says: “Without exception, the Church Fathers in late antiquity identified Andronicus’ partner in Romans 16:7 as a woman, as did minuscule 33 in the 9th century which records iounia with an acute accent. Only later medieval copyists of Romans 16:7 could not imagine a woman being an apostle and wrote the masculine name ‘Junias.’ This latter name did not exist in antiquity; its explanation as a Greek abbreviation of the Latin name ‘Junianus’ is unlikely.”

St. John Chrysostom, one of the Church Fathers who lived in the Fourth Century A.D. clearly understood Junia to be a woman. In commenting on Romans 16:7, Chrysostom writes: “And indeed to be apostles at all is a great thing. But to be even amongst these of note, just consider what a great encomium this is! But they were of note owing to their works, to their achievements. Oh! How great is the devotion of this woman, that she should be even counted worthy of the appellation of apostle! (A Select Library of the Nicene and Post-Nicene Fathers of the Christian Church Volume 11, Edited by Philip Schaff, page 555.

The fourth century Christian scholar, St. Jerome, also understood Junia to be a woman. In the Latin Vulgate Jerome translates Romans 16:7 thus: “Salutate Andronicum, et Iuniam cognatos, et concaptivos meos: qui sunt nobiles in Apostolis, qui et ante me fuerunt in Christo.” Which literally means: “Salute Andronicus and Iunia my relatives and fellow-captives, who are well known among the Apostles, who before me were in Christ.” Granted my Latin sort of ruff due to years of inactivity but the name Junia, though in this sentence the name appears in the accusative thus the “am” ending, is in the feminine gender. Therefore, from above and other early Christian testimony, there is no doubt that Junia was a woman. THE NEW INTERPRETER’S BIBLE COMMENTARY, Volume 10, page 762 says: “Junia is thus one of the female ‘apostles,’ the only one so called; though presumably others, such as Mary Magdalene, were known as such as well.”

It is most likely that Andronicus and Junia were married, or perhaps brother and sister. Though not of the “Twelve,” to be apostles Andronicus and Junia would have held positions of responsibility in the early church. Perhaps as a husband and wife team they shared these responsibilities. Nevertheless, Junia has the honour of being the only female apostle mentioned in the New Testament.

01-30-2009 01:09 AM
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RE: The Apostle Junia, Romans 16:7

Romans 16 is interesting in that these greetings are to men and women equally.
Phoebe is a minister (dia konos, someone who goes through the dust). Mary is mentioned, as is Prisca along with Aquila, then Junia or Julia.
Paul greets Tryphaena and Tryphosa along with Persis, all of them women.
Through early texts it seems most likely that this was a woman called Junia, but the problem is more to prove from the Greek that she was one of the apostles rather than prominent among them.
Nevertheless, the fact that her name became masculinised, shows the level of mysogynism that crept into the texts, with whole glosses, like the awful one in 1 Cor. 14:34,35 being inserted into the main texts. The level of domination expressed in that gloss shows how true were Jehovah's words in Genesis.

So we have Phoebe as a minister and Junia probably an apostle (one sent out), who was a christian before Paul was converted.

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Junia


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01-30-2009 06:15 AM
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Admiral Kolchak
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RE: The Apostle Junia, Romans 16:7

It would be mere speculation to assign to Junia positions and responsibilities in the church that are not mentioned in the New Testament. However, unlike other women who had roles in his ministry, St. Paul uses the title apostle in reference to Junia.

Regarding the definition of the term “apostle,” THE INTERPRETER’S DICTIONARY OF THE BIBLE Volume 1, page 170, says: “A title denoting a commissioned messenger or ambassador. It occurs seventy-nine times in the NT, but with various shades of meaning, both of a precise and general character. In Christian usage the term has two distinctive connotations: (a) it is limited to certain men of the first generation of the church’s history; and (b) it marks the bearer of the title, among other qualifications, as a missionary of a gospel.”

THE ANCHOR BIBLE DICTIONARY Volume 1, page 309, says: “Chronologically, in the earliest use of the term in the NT, apostolos is an administrative designation for envoys, delegates, and representatives. Their title and function are given in 2 Cor. 8:23 as “envoys of the churches” (apostoloi ekklesion), that is, envoys appointed and sent out by the churches to represent them. In other places, the term “apostle” is understood in a more religious sense as a missionary and preacher of the gospel. Acts 1:21-26 and 13:1-3, passages describing the appointment of different types of ‘apostles,’ show that such appointments did not exclude divine intervention and authorization. The tasks of these apostles could vary but they seem to be centered in the proclamation of the gospel and the founding and administering of new churches. Romans 16:3-16 includes a long list of greetings, among them the two apostles Andronicus and Junias (Rom. 16:7). Perhaps the name ‘Junias’ was corrected by scribes to replace Junia, a female name; such a correction would indicate that a woman (here possibly a married couple like Prisca and Aquila in 16:3, and Philologus and Julia in 16:15. although none of them is called apostle) could serve as a missionary apostle.”

It is true that “apostle” has several meanings in New Testament usage. Which definition applied to Junia? The Scriptures are silent about this unique woman. But remember that of all the women mentioned in Romans 16, only Junia is called an apostle.

01-31-2009 09:01 PM
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RE: The Apostle Junia, Romans 16:7

OK doughty admirable Kolchak, you brought it up.

Apo in 'apostle' means from in greek, it is a preposition; e.g.

Apo stasis as in apostasy is easy to understand.
Apo.....from
Stasis.....stand
So apo-stasis is stand(away)from.
Hence the word APOSTASY. It is a transliteration of the greek word apostasis meaning to 'stand away from (God)'

Apo-stellein means again apo.....from and
stellein to send. This gives the word apostle.
So apo-stellein means to send out. This is an emissary. (L. emissarius, lit. "that is sent out," from emittere "send forth" emit).

So the greek word is apostellein. The Latin word is emissary.
We do not get our knickers in a twist when we discover an ambassador or emissary is female, even if she were a greek female, an apostellein. Unfortunately, this word is not translated in the Bible but once again transliterated.
Those transliterated words tend to take on a life-form of their own.
http://www.paradisecafediscussions.net/s...p?tid=1603

If a woman of means was sent out, the greek word to describe her on her mission would be apostle.
As with diakonos (through the dust), apostellein (sent out), is not gender specific.


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02-01-2009 11:43 AM
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RE: The Apostle Junia, Romans 16:7

OK folks, quick search: where is the scripture that shows there were many apostles apart from the twelve?


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07-08-2009 05:11 PM
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Willa
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RE: The Apostle Junia, Romans 16:7

Paul called Jesus an apostle with a capitol "A" - something I had evidently forgotten -

Hebrews 3:1
Therefore, holy brethren, partakers of a heavenly calling, consider Jesus, the Apostle and High Priest of our confession;

Luke 6:12-16
Choosing the Twelve
It was at this time that He went off to the mountain to pray, and He spent the whole night in prayer to God.
And when day came, He called His disciples to Him and chose twelve of them, whom He also named as apostles:
Simon, whom He also named Peter, and Andrew his brother; and James and John; and Philip and Bartholomew;
and Matthew and Thomas; James the son of Alphaeus, and Simon who was called the Zealot;
Judas the son of James, and Judas Iscariot, who became a traitor.

Acts 1:2
until the day when He was taken up to heaven, after He had by the Holy Spirit given orders to the apostles whom He had chosen.

Acts 1:25, 26
to occupy this ministry and apostleship from which Judas turned aside to go to his own place."
And they drew lots for them, and the lot fell to Matthias; and he was added to the eleven apostles.

Acts 14:14
But when the apostles Barnabas and Paul heard of it, they tore their robes and rushed out into the crowd, crying out (Peter here calls Barnabas and Paul fellow-apostles)

Acts 15:22
Then it seemed good to the apostles and the elders, with the whole church, to choose men from among them to send to Antioch with Paul and Barnabas--Judas called Barsabbas, and Silas, leading men among the brethren, (so are Barsabbas and Silas more than "leading men" since they were sent out - does that make them 'apostles' too?)

Revelation 21:14
And the wall of the city had twelve foundation stones, and on them were the twelve names of the twelve apostles of the Lamb.

Seems to me that "apostle" is a special title, since Jesus called them out from his large following of disciples - and the original twelve are given special significance in Rev. 21. I'm wondering though - is the word 'apostle' and the word 'missionary' the same thing - "sent out ones"?

And note this:

Romans 1:1-7
Paul, a bond-servant of Christ Jesus, called as an apostle, set apart for the gospel of God,
which He promised beforehand through His prophets in the holy Scriptures, concerning His Son, who was born of a descendant of David according to the flesh, who was declared the Son of God with power by the resurrection from the dead, according to the Spirit of holiness, Jesus Christ our Lord, through whom we have received grace and apostleship to bring about the obedience of faith among all the Gentiles for His name's sake, among whom you also are the called of Jesus Christ; to all who are beloved of God in Rome, called as saints: Grace to you and peace from God our Father and the Lord Jesus Christ.

Here is chapter 16 in its entirety from the 'New Century Version' - one of few that list 'Junia' without the (s):

Romans 16
Greetings to the Christians
1 I recommend to you our sister Phoebe, who is a helper[a] in the church in Cenchrea. 2 I ask you to accept her in the Lord in the way God's people should. Help her with anything she needs, because she has helped me and many other people also.
3 Give my greetings to Priscilla and Aquila, who work together with me in Christ Jesus 4 and who risked their own lives to save my life. I am thankful to them, and all the non-Jewish churches are thankful as well. 5 Also, greet for me the church that meets at their house. Greetings to my dear friend Epenetus, who was the first person in Asia to follow Christ. 6 Greetings to Mary, who worked very hard for you.7 Greetings to Andronicus and Junia, my relatives, who were in prison with me. They are very important apostles. They were believers in Christ before I was. 8 Greetings to Ampliatus, my dear friend in the Lord. 9 Greetings to Urbanus, a worker together with me for Christ. And greetings to my dear friend Stachys. 10 Greetings to Apelles, who was tested and proved that he truly loves Christ. Greetings to all those who are in the family of Aristobulus. 11 Greetings to Herodion, my fellow citizen. Greetings to all those in the family of Narcissus who belong to the Lord. 12 Greetings to Tryphena and Tryphosa, women who work very hard for the Lord. Greetings to my dear friend Persis, who also has worked very hard for the Lord. 13 Greetings to Rufus, who is a special person in the Lord, and to his mother, who has been like a mother to me also. 14 Greetings to Asyncritus, Phlegon, Hermes, Patrobas, Hermas, and all the brothers and sisters who are with them. 15 Greetings to Philologus and Julia, Nereus and his sister, and Olympas, and to all God's people with them. 16 Greet each other with a holy kiss. All of Christ's churches send greetings to you.
17 Brothers and sisters, I ask you to look out for those who cause people to be against each other and who upset other people's faith. They are against the true teaching you learned, so stay away from them. 18 Such people are not serving our Lord Christ but are only doing what pleases themselves. They use fancy talk and fine words to fool the minds of those who do not know about evil. 19 All the believers have heard that you obey, so I am very happy because of you. But I want you to be wise in what is good and innocent in what is evil.
20 The God who brings peace will soon defeat Satan and give you power over him.
The grace of our Lord Jesus be with you.
21 Timothy, a worker together with me, sends greetings, as well as Lucius, Jason, and Sosipater, my relatives.
22 I am Tertius, and I am writing this letter from Paul. I send greetings to you in the Lord.
23 Gaius is letting me and the whole church here use his home. He also sends greetings to you, as do Erastus, the city treasurer, and our brother Quartus. 24 The grace of our Lord Jesus Christ be with all of you. Amen.
25 Glory to God who can make you strong in faith by the Good News that I tell people and by the message about Jesus Christ. The message about Christ is the secret that was hidden for long ages past but is now made known. 26 It has been made clear through the writings of the prophets. And by the command of the eternal God it is made known to all nations that they might believe and obey.
27 To the only wise God be glory forever through Jesus Christ! Amen.

Footnotes:
[a] Romans 16:1 helper Literally, "deaconess." This might mean the same as one of the special women helpers in 1 Timothy 3:11.

Does this help?:dontknow:
Love u Vick:love:


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07-08-2009 08:27 PM
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RE: The Apostle Junia, Romans 16:7

New Century Version
Brilliant, to know she is called Junia, as she should be. Thanks.

I pointed out a scripture to brendan and cannot find it myself now that there were many apostles apart from the twelve
Yes sent out ones like missionaries.

love you Willa
vicky


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07-08-2009 10:12 PM
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RE: The Apostle Junia, Romans 16:7

Hope this makes sense.
The twelve apostles, refers to the twelve sent out by Christ, since that is what apostle means.

But then afterward there were many congregations, and they sent out apostles or emmissaries or missionaries even.
Paul was sent by the Antioch congregation to Jerusalem, so he was an apostle.
So in the end there were many apostles, but there was a special twelve sent out by Jesus. He sent out also seventy, these too were apostles.
And Jesus himself was sent out by Jehovah, being his emmissary.

If we get sent somewhere we are an apostle.

vicky


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07-10-2009 03:17 AM
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RE: The Apostle Junia, Romans 16:7

OK found the scripture I was looking for.
1Cor.15:5-7 first Jesus appeared to the twelve and then to all the other apostles.

vicky


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07-14-2009 06:30 AM
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Willa
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RE: The Apostle Junia, Romans 16:7

I'm so glad you didn't give up the search for the particular one you were looking for, Vick. Even tho' I did a word search for 'apostle' on BibleGateway, I overlooked that one - the one!

:airkiss:Good on ya, sis!:thumbsup:


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07-14-2009 02:17 PM
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justin
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RE: The Apostle Junia, Romans 16:7

The word apostle literally means "sent one". Jesus was an Apostle in that he was sent by the Father to procalim good news. Likewise, Jesus chose 12 to be apostles and immediately dispatched them to preach the good news. He later did the same with 70 others. The early congregations sent ones out as well, Paul was called to be an apostle by Jesus Christ, but it was the congregation of Antioch, at the direction of the Holy Spirit, that dispatched Paul and Barnabas as apostles. When he ascended on high Jesus "gave some as apostles", which on its basic level was simply a traveling minister of the good news.

There are different ways to look at Romans 16:7; but, as many religions accept females as missionaries there should be no real objection to Junia being a female apostle in this respect, if that is the correct reading of the verse.

08-28-2009 05:50 PM
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RE: The Apostle Junia, Romans 16:7

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08-08-2011 11:26 AM
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